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Table Of Contents

What are Polyps?

Polyps are small, bumpy, mushrooms like tissue growths that are generally found in the uterus and colon. The majority of polyps are benign or noncancerous. They can, however, become malignant or cancerous as a result of aberrant cell proliferation.

What Causes Polyps?

Healthy cells divide and expand in a predictable pattern. Certain gene mutations can cause cells to divide even when new cells aren’t required. Polyps can occur in the colon and rectum as a result of this uncontrolled expansion. Polyps can form in any part of the large intestine.

The following factors may have a role in the development of colon polyps:

  • Age: Most people with colon polyps are over 50 years old.
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colon disease.
  • Family background: If a family member has had any history of polyps, the likeliness of getting polyps increases significantly.
  • Excess Tobacco usage and excessive alcohol consumption
  • Obesity
  • Hereditary diseases such as Lynch syndrome, Gardener’s syndrome and Peutz jeggers syndrome.

What are the Symptoms of Colon Polyps?

Most individuals with colon polyps have no symptoms. However, some persons with colon polyps may have the following symptoms:

  • Rectal hemorrhage: This might indicate colon polyps, cancer, or other diseases, including hemorrhoids or mild anus rips.
  • Color change in the stool: Blood might appear in the stool as crimson streaks or as a black colour. Certain meals, drugs, or dietary supplements might also produce a change in hue.
  • A Change in bowel habits: Constipation or diarrhoea that lasts more than a week might signify a bigger polyp in the colon.
  • Pain in the abdomen: A big colon polyp might clog the intestine and cause crampy stomach pain.
  • Iron deficiency anemia: Polyp bleeding can happen gradually over time, with no noticeable blood in the stool. Chronic bleeding depletes the iron required to make haemoglobin resulting in iron deficiency anemia.

How are Polyps Diagnosed?

Polyps can be detected before they become malignant with screening tests. These tests can also aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer when there is a significant possibility of recovery.

  • Colonoscopy: Colonoscopy is the most sensitive diagnostic for polyps and cancer in the colon.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: A flexible, lighted tube is inserted in the rectum to examine the sigmoid.
  • Stool examinations: This test works by looking for blood in the stool and also analyzing the stool DNA for signs of a polyp or cancer in the colon.

What are the Complications of Colon Polyps?

Some polyps in the colon can turn malignant. The sooner polyps are removed, the less likely they are of becoming malignant.

How are Colon Polyps Treated?

The following are some polyp removal options:

  • Polypectomy: Using forceps or a wire loop, the polyp is removed. If a polyp is too big to remove with this procedure, a liquid can be injected under it to raise it and separate it from surrounding tissue, allowing it to be removed.
  • Surgery with incision: Polyps that are too big or can’t be properly removed during screening are generally surgically removed, which is normally done by putting a laparoscope into the belly and removing the diseased piece of the colon.

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